Daffodils Signal the End of Winter
with Bright Cheer

A "river" of daffodils  Mass planting of yellow daffodils in spring.A "river" of daffodils.

Daffodils (Narcissus) are a must for the spring garden.  I look forward with anticipation each spring as they begin to emerge from the ground.  And they can be used in so many ways--in masses for a carpet of color, in small groups in the woodland garden, in a cutting garden to bring in for arrangements, in containers, or under deciduous trees where they will get sun until the tree leaves emerge.  They are easy to grow, the clumps will increase in size and they are deer resistant.  Plant narcissus bulbs in the fall, in full sun (preferably at least 6 hours a day) or dappled shade, in well-drained soil.  After flowering, do not remove the foliage, or tie it in knots, but allow to die away naturally, the bulbs need the foliage to make food for next year's flowers.  Scatter a little bulb food on the ground around the bulbs after blooming, lightly scratch it into the soil and water.  Eventually, the clumps will get quite dense and begin to produce fewer flowers, then you will know that it is time to divide them.  The best time to divide them is after the foliage turns brown, then you can dig the clump and separate the bulbs to replant.  That's the nice thing about daffodils--they perennialize very well and eventually you will have quite a lot and you can share with friends or perhaps create a "river of daffodils" like the picture above.

It is fun to plant a few new ones each fall.  There are so many different types of daffodils that they have been officially placed into 13 divisions.  The descriptions and criteria for each division below are from the American Daffodil Society.  try some of each group for a variety of colors, shapes and bloom times.

Division 1:  Trumpet Daffodils

Trumpets--One flower to a stem, corona (trumpet or cup) as long or longer than the perianth segments (petals).

Examples:  Beersheba, Bravoure, British Gamble, Dutch Master, Goblet, King Alfred, Lemon Glow, Marieke, Mount Hood, Pistachio, Spellbinder, Watch Up, W. P. Milner

Narcissus 'Beersheba' is an example of the Division 1 Trumpet class.  'Beersheba' is an elegant daffodil with white perianth and the palest ivory in the long, narrow trumpet.  Outstanding.Narcissus 'Beersheba,' a trumpet daffodil.
Narcissus 'British Gamble' is an example of the Division 1 Trumpet class.  It is a large flower with pure white petals and wide pink-edged ruffled trumpetNarcissus 'British Gamble,' a trumpet daffodil.
Narcissus 'Lemon Glow' is an example of the Division I Trumpet class in pale lemon yellow.  The trumpet has a darker yellow rim.Narcissus 'Lemon Glow,' a trumpet daffodil.
Narcissus 'Marieke' is an example of the Division 1 Trumpet class.  'Marieke' is a large, pure yellow flower with a wide ruffled trumpet.Narcissus 'Marieke,' a trumpet daffodil.
Narcissus 'Mount Hood' is a white daffodil in the Trumpet division.  The flaring trumpet opens creamy yellow and matures to pure white.Narcissus 'Mount Hood,' a trumpet daffodil.
Narcissus 'Pistachio' is an example of the Division 1 Trumpet class.  The petals are pale yellow, and the white trumpet has a contrasting frilled yellow edge with a hint of green.Narcissus 'Pistachio,' a trumpet daffodil.
Narcissus 'W. P. Milner' is an example of a Division 1, Trumpet class. This heirloom daffodil predates 1809.  Its nodding trumpets start out soft yellow and fade to white.Narcissus 'W. P. Milner,' a trumpet. daffodil

Division 2:  Large-Cupped Daffodils

Large-Cupped Daffodils--One flower to a stem, corona (cup) more than one third but less than equal to the length of the perianth.segments (petals).

Examples:  Avalon, Can Can Girl, Delibes, Fragrant Breeze,  Flower Record, Fortissimo, Ice Follies, Perfect Lady, Pink Charm, Professor Einstein, Salome, Sound

Narcissus 'Avalon' is an example of the Division 2 Large-Cupped class, featuring a white cup with contrasting soft yellow petals.Narcissus 'Avalon,' a large-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Can Can Girl' is and example of a Division 2 Large-Cupped daffodil. '
Can Can Girl' has a white perianth and a very tightly frilled orange cup like a showgirl's costume or a ballerina's tutu.Narcissus 'Can Can Girl,' a large-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Delibes' is an example of the Division 2 Large-Cupped class. Bright yellow petals with contrasting orange cup with darker rim stands out in the garden.Narcissus 'Delibes,' a large-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Ice Follies' is an example of the Division 2 Large-Cupped class.  An old favorite, this early bloomer features white petals and a wide yellow cup that matures to white.Narcissus 'Ice Follies,' a large-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Pink Charm' is in the Division II, Large-Cupped Class.  Pure white petals set off the wide pink band of the cup.Narcissus 'Pink Charm,' a large-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Red Devon' is an example of the Division 2 Large-Cupped class.  It has a bright yellow perianth with an orange cup edged with darker red-orange.Narcissus 'Red Devon, a large-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Salome' is an example of the Division 2 Large-Cupped class.  White petals display a large peachy-pink cup with a yellow edge.Narcissus 'Salome,' a large-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Sound' is an example of the Division 2 Large-Cupped class. 'Sound' features white petals with a frilly yellow cup.Narcissus 'Sound,' a large-cupped daffodil.

Division 3:  Small-Cupped Daffodils

Small-Cupped Daffodils-- One flower to a stem, corona (cup) not more than one third the height of the perianth segments (petals).

Examples: Altruist, Barrett Browning, Falmouth Bay, Goose Green, Jamestown, Princess Zaide, Queen of the North, Ringtone, Royal Princess, Segovia, Sinopel, Xit

'Altruist' is an example of the Division 3 Small-Cupped class.  It features a soft orange perianth and red-orange cup.Narcissus 'Altruist,' a small-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Barrett Browning' is an example of the Division 3 Small-Cupped class with white petals and orange cup.Narcissus 'Barrett Browning,'a small-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Goose Green' is an example of the Division 3 Small-Cupped class.  White petals and small yellow cup with a frilly orange-red rim.Narcissus 'Goose Green,' a small-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Queen of the North' is an example of the Division 3  Small-Cupped class.  An heirloom daffodil from 1908, she has pure white petals and a yellow cup daintily edged in gold.Narcissus 'Queen of the North,' a small-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Ringtone' is an example of the Division 3 Small-Cupped class.  It has a pale yellow perianth with a ruffled yellow cup ringed with orange.Narcissus 'Ringtone,' a small-cupped daffodil.
Narcissus 'Xit' is in the Division 3, Small-Cupped Class.  It is miniature in size, about 4-6", in pure white with a greenish eye.Narcissus 'Xit,' a small-cupped daffodil.

Division 4:  Double Daffodils

Double Daffodils-- Daffodils have a clustered cup, petals or both. There can be one or more flowers per stem. 

Examples:  Cheerfulness, Delnashaugh, Erlicheer, Feu de Joie, Ice King, Irene Copeland, Replete, Rip van Winkle, Tahiti, Wave, White Lion, Yellow Cheerfulness

Narcissus 'Cheerfulness' is an example of Division 4 Double.  White outer petals surround a center cluster of white with yellow flecks.  A smaller flower, but multiple flowers per stem.Narcissus 'Cheerfulness,' a double daffodil.
Narcissus 'Delnashaugh' is an example of the Division 4 Double class.  A gorgeous confection of layered pink and white.Narcissus 'Delnashaugh,' a double daffodil.
Narcissus 'Erlicheer' is an example of the Division 4 Double class.  'Erlicheer has multiple, fragrant, small white flowers with yellow inner segments per stem. They are one of the best forcing.Narcissus 'Erlicheer,' a double daffodil.
Narcissus 'Feu de Joie' is an example of the Division 4 Double class. Long white outer petals embrace a center of orange and gold. Free-spirited, romantic, gorgeous.Narcissus 'Feu de Joie,' a double daffodil.
Narcissus 'Irene Copeland' is an example of the Division 4 Double class. Neatly arranged white petals alternating with yellow make this 1915 heirloom unique.Narcissus 'Irene Copeland,' a double daffodil
Narcissus 'Replete' is and example of Division 4 Double class. A delicious confection of a double daffodil with whorls of white and peachy-pink.Narcissus 'Replete,' a double daffodil.
Narcissus 'Tahiti' is an example of the Division 4 Double class with yellow petals interspersed with orange petaloids.Narcissus 'Tahiti,' a double daffodil.
Narcissus 'Wave' is an example of the Division 4 Double class.  A white perianth surrounds a cup of frothy petticoat layers of yellow and white .Narcissus 'Wave,' a double daffodil.
Narcissus 'Yellow Cheerfulness' is an example of the Division 4 Double class. It has multiple small double yellow flowers per stem.Narcissus 'Yellow Cheerfulness,'a double daffodil.

Division 5:  Triandrus Daffodils

Triandrus Daffodils-- Usually more than one flower to a stem, head drooping, perianth segments often reflexed and of silky texture.  There are usually two or more blooms per stem.

Examples:  Hawera, Ice Wings, Lemon Drops, Liberty Bells, Petrel, Stint, Thalia

Narcissus 'Hawera' is an example of the Division 5 Triandrus class.  Miniature pale yellow bells with multiple blooms per stem.Narcissus 'Hawera,' a triandrus daffodil.
Narcissus 'Ice Wings' in an example of the Division 5 Triandrus class with white perianth and ivory trumpet.Narcissus 'Ice Wings,' a triandrus daffodil.
Narcissus 'Liberty Bells' is an example of the Division 5 Triandrus class features soft yellow petals and trumpet.Narcissus 'Liberty Bells,' a triandrus daffodil.
Narcissus 'Stint' is an example of the Division 5 Triandrus class has soft yellow petals and a slightly darker yellow cup.Narcissus 'Stint,' a triandrus daffodil.
Narcissus 'Thalia' is an example of the Division 5 Triandrus class.  Pristine white swept-back petals and pure white cup. Elegant and charming.Narcissus 'Thalia,' a triandrus daffodil.

Division 6:  Cyclamineus Daffodils

Cyclamineus Daffodils-- One flower to a stem, perianth significantly reflexed and corona straight and narrow. flower at an acute angle to the stem, with a very short pedicel (neck).

Examples:  February Gold, Jack Snipe, Jetfire, Peeping Tom, Rapture, Snipe, Winter Waltz, Wisley

Narcissus 'February Gold' is an example of the Division 6 Cyclamineus class  with a distinctive wide, curved back perianth and yellow trumpet..Narcissus 'February Gold,' a cyclamineus daffodil.
Narcissus 'Jetfire' is an example of the Division 6 Cyclamineus class with yellow perianth and orange trumpet.Narcissus 'Jetfire,' a cyclamineus daffodil.
Narcissus 'Rapture' is an example of the Division 6 Cyclamineus class with swept-back yellow perianth and long, straight yellow trumpet.Narcissus 'Rapture,' a cyclamineus daffodil.
Narcissus 'Winter Waltz' is an example of the Division 6 Cyclamineus class with swept-back white petals and a long trumpet that opens yellow-orange and matures to soft apricot.Narcissus 'Winter Waltz,' a cyclamineus daffodil.
Narcissus 'Wisley' is an example of the Division 6 Cyclamineus class with white perianth and yellow trumpet.Narcissus 'Wisley,' a cyclamineus daffodil.

Division 7:  Jonquilla Daffodils

Jonquilla Daffodils-- Usually several flower heads to a stem, flowers usually fragrant, stem is round in cross-section and foliage is often rush like.

Examples:  Baby Moon, Bell Song, Kedron, New Baby, Pipit, Quail, Prosecco, Stratosphere, Sweetness, Sweet Smiles

Narcissus 'Bell Song' is an example of the Division 7 Jonquilla class with white perianth and pink cup.Narcissus 'Bell Song,' a jonquilla daffodil.
Narcissus 'Golden Echo' is an example of the Division 7 Jonquilla class with a white perianth with yellow ring at the base that "echoes" the yellow of the trumpet.Narcissus 'Golden Echo,' a jonquilla daffodil.
Narcissus 'Kedron' is an example of the Division 7 Jonquilla class with pale orange perianth and darker orange cup.Narcissus 'Kedron,' jonquilla daffodil.
Narcissus 'Pipit' is an example of the Division 7 Jonquilla class with soft yellow perianth that is white at the base, and yellow cup that matures to white.Narcissus 'Pipit,' jonquilla daffodil.
Narcissus 'Stratosphere' is an example of the Division 7 Jonquilla class is solid yellow.Narcissus 'Stratosphere,' jonquilla daffodil.

Division 8:  Tazetta Daffodils

Tazetta Daffodils-- Usually three to twenty flowers to a stout stem, sweet scented and very short cupped. Perianth segments rounded and often somewhat crinkled.

Examples:  Aspasia, Avalanche, Canaliculatus, Cragford, Falconet, Geranium, Minnow, Silver Chimes

Narcissus 'Aspasia,' is a historic tazetta type from 1908, with white perianth and golden cup slightly darker at rim.Narcissus 'Aspasia,' a tazetta daffodil.
Narcissus 'Avalanche' is an example of the Division 8 Tazetta class with white perianth and soft yellow cup.  Fragrant.Narcissus 'Avalanche,' a tazetta daffodil.
Narcissus 'Cragford' is an example of the Division 8 Tazetta class with white perianth and orange cup.Narcissus 'Cragford,' a tazetta daffodil.
Narcissus 'Falconet' is an example of the Division 8 Tazetta class with yellow perianth and orange cup.Narcissus 'Falconet,' a tazetta daffodil.
Narcissus 'Minnow' is an example of the Division 8 Tazetta class with bright white perianth and yellow cup in a miniature size.Narcissus 'Minnow,' a tazetta daffodil.

Division 9:  Poeticus Daffodils

Poeticus Daffodils-- Usually one flower to a stem. White petals sometimes stained with the corona color at the base, small flat cup edged with red. Fragrant.

Examples:  Actaea, Angel Eyes, Ornatus, Pheasant's Eye, Vienna Woods

Narcissus 'Actaea' is an example of the Division 9 Poeticus class with white perianth and small yellow cup edged in red-orange.Narcissus 'Actaea,' a poeticus daffodil.
Narcissus 'Ornatus'Narcissus 'Ornatus,' a poeticus daffodil.
Narcissus 'Vienna Woods'Narcissus 'Vienna Woods'

Division 10:  Bulbocodium Daffodils

Bulbocodium Hybrids-- Small flowers resemble a “hoop petticoat” form.

Examples:  Golden Bells, Cornish Cream

Narcissus bulbocodium is an example of the Division 10 Bulbocodium class, with tiny yellow petals and wide yellow "hoop petticoat."Narcissus bulbocodium, a bulbocodium group daffodil.

Division 11a:  Split-Cupped Collar Daffodils

 Split-Cupped Collar Daffodils-- Split-corona daffodils with the corona segments opposite the perianth segments; the corona segments usually in two whorls of three.

Examples:  Apricot Whirl, Blazing Starlet, Cassata, Mondragon, Shrike, Sovereign, Tricollet

Narcissus 'Apricot Whirl' is an example of the Division 11A Split-Cupped Collar class with white perianth and apricot corona.Narcissus 'Apricot Whirl,' a split-cupped collar daffodil.
Narcissus 'Cassata' is an example of the Division 11A Split-Cupped Collar class with white perianth and lenon-yellow corona.Narcissus 'Cassata,' a split-cupped collar daffodil.
Narcissus 'Orangery' is an example of the Division 11A Split-Cupped Collar class with white perianth and bright orange split corona.Narcissus 'Orangery,' a split-cupped collar daffodil.
Narcissus 'Shrike' is an example of the Division 11A Split-Cupped Collar class with white perianth and soft peachy corona.Narcissus 'Shrike,' a split-cupped collar daffodil.
Narcissus 'Tricollet' is an example of the Division 11A Split-Cupped Collar class with a white perianth and a split yellow corona in three distinct parts.Narcissus 'Tricollet,' a split-cupped collar daffodil.

Division 11b:  Split-Cupped Papillon Daffodils

Split-Cupped Papillon Daffodils:  Split-corona daffodils with the corona segments alternate to the perianth segments; the corona segments usually in a single whorl of six.  Also called butterfly daffodils.

Examples:  Dancing Moonlight, Lemon Beauty, Papillon Blanc, Sorbet

Narcissus 'Lemon Beauty' is an example of the Division 11B Split-Cupped Papillon class with a white perianth and lemon-yellow corona split in six segments.Narcissus 'Lemon Beauty,' a split-cupped papillon daffodil.
Narcissus 'Papillon Blanc' is an example of the Division 11B Split-Cupped Papillon class.  It has a white perianth and soft yellow cup that matures to ivory.Narcissus 'Papillon Blanc' is a split-cupped papillon daffodil.

Division 12:  Miscellaneous Daffodils

Miscellaneous Daffodils-- Division 12 consists of daffodils not falling into any of the previous categories. Many are inter-division hybrids.

Examples: Bittern,  Jumblie, Tête-á-Tête

Narcissus ‘Tête-á-Tête’ is an example of the Division 12 Miscellaneous class is a miniature daffodil with slightly swept-back yellow perianth and yellow trumpet.Narcissus ‘Tête-á-Tête,’ a daffodil from the miscellaneous class.

Division 13:  Species, Wild Variants and Wild Hybrids

Species, Wild Variants and Wild Hybrids--Division 13 consists of the wild, natural daffodils.

Examples:   N. cantabricus, N. cyclamineus, N. jonquilla, N. jonquilla 'Simplex,' N. x medioluteus, N. moschatus, N. x odorus, N. papyraceus, N. poeticus var. recurvus

Narcissus bulbocodium subsp. bulbododium var. conspicuus

Bulbocodium subsp. bulbocodium var. conspicuus

Narcissus jonquilla 'Simplex' is a tiny historical daffodil with bright yellow scented flowers.  There are multiple flowers per stem.  Charming!

Narcissus jonquilla 'Simplex' is an example of Division 13 Species class with yellow perianth and small yellow cup.Narcissus jonquilla 'Simplex,' a species daffodil.

Narcissus moschatus, is a lovely charmer also called Silver Bells or Swan’s Neck.  The dainty creamy trumpet nods towards the ground on a curved stem and the petals are almost parallel to it.  Goes beautifully with small bulbs like grape hyacinths or scillas.

Narcissus moschatus is an example of the Division 13 Species class. The dainty creamy trumpet nods towards the ground on a curved stem and the petals are almost parallel to it.Narcissus moschatus, a species daffodil.

Narcissus x odorus 'Linnaeus,' known as the campernelle, is single with a scalloped cup and twisty petals, also very fragrant and a great naturalizer

Narcissus x odorus 'Linnaeus' is an example of the Division 13 Species class is also known as the campernelle. The all yellow flowers have a scalloped cup and twisty petals.Narcissus x odorus 'Linnaeus,' a species daffodil.

Narcissus x odorus 'Plenus,' or 'Flore-pleno' is also called Queen Anne's double daffodil or the double campernelle, fragrant.

Narcissus x odorus 'Plenus' is an example of the Division 13 Species class with yellow flowers also known as Queen Anne's double daffodil or the double campernelle.Narcissus x odorus 'Plenus,' a species daffodil.

Narcissus poeticus var. recurvus, is the old pheasant's eye daffodil, fragrant, with recurved petals and red-rimmed cup, late blooming

Narcissus poeticus var. recurvus is an example of the Division 13 Species class.  The pure white perianth has recured petals and the small cup is yellow rimmed with red.Narcissus poeticus var. recurvus, a species daffodil.

Miniature Daffodils

Miniature Daffodils:  Though not an official classification, it is helpful to group these smaller species and cultivars together as an aide in planning. 

Narcissus 'Baby Moon' is a pure yellow miniature daffodil of about 4-8" h. from the Jonquilla Division.Narcissus 'Baby Moon'
Narcissus 'Hawera' is a lemon yellow miniature Triandrus daffodil so it has multiple flowers per stem.  6-9" h.Narcissus 'Hawera'
Narcissus 'Minnow' is a miniature daffodil of the Tazetta division.  It has a soft white perianth with distinctive little points on the petals and a bright yellow cup. 5-6" h.Narcissus 'Minnow'
Narcissus 'Mite' is a miniature cyclamineus daffodil. All yellow, it has a relexed perianth and a long, narrow tubular corona.Narcissus 'Mite'
Narcissus ‘Tête-á-Tête’ is classified as a miscellaneous daffodil. It is yellow with the trumpet being slightly darker than the perianth. An early bloomer, it is about 6-9"h.Narcissus ‘Tête-á-Tête’
Narcissus 'W. P. Milner' is a dwarf variety of the Trumpet division.  It opens pale yellow and matures to white.  The nodding bell-like flowers are distinctive.  12" h.Narcissus 'W. P. Milner'
Narcissus 'Xit' is a charming miniature of the Small-Cupped Division.  Pure white, it grows to about 6-9" h.Narcissus 'Xit'

For more information about daffodils, visit the American Daffodil Society at www.daffodilusa.org .


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