Daffodils Signal the End of Winter
with Bright Cheer

A A "river" of daffodils.

Daffodils (Narcissus) are a must for the spring garden.  I look forward with anticipation each spring as they begin to emerge from the ground.  And they can be used in so many ways--in masses for a carpet of color, in small groups in the woodland garden, in a cutting garden to bring in for arrangements, in containers, or under deciduous trees where they will get sun until the tree leaves emerge.  They are easy to grow, the clumps will increase in size and they are deer resistant.  Plant narcissus bulbs in the fall, in full sun (preferably at least 6 hours a day) or dappled shade, in well-drained soil.  After flowering, do not remove the foliage, or tie it in knots, but allow to die away naturally, the bulbs need the foliage to make food for next year's flowers.  Scatter a little bulb food on the ground around the bulbs after blooming, lightly scratch it into the soil and water.  Eventually, the clumps will get quite dense and begin to produce fewer flowers, then you will know that it is time to divide them.  The best time to divide them is after the foliage turns brown, then you can dig the clump and separate the bulbs to replant.  That's the nice thing about daffodils--they perennialize very well and eventually you will have quite a lot and you can share with friends or perhaps create a "river of daffodils" like the picture above.

It is fun to plant a few new ones each fall.  There are so many different types of daffodils that they have been officially placed into 13 divisions.  The descriptions and criteria for each division below are from the American Daffodil Society.  try some of each group for a variety of colors, shapes and bloom times.

Division 1:  Trumpet Daffodils

Trumpets--One flower to a stem, corona (trumpet or cup) as long or longer than the perianth segments (petals).

Examples:  Bravoure, British Gamble, Dutch Master, Goblet, King Alfred, Lemon Glow, Marieke, Mount Hood, Pistachio, Spellbinder, Topolino

Narcissus 'British Gamble' is an example of the Division 1 Trumpet class.  It is a large flower with pure white petals and wide pink-edged trumpetNarcissus 'British Gamble'
Narcissus 'Lemon Glow' is an example of the Division I Trumpet class in pale lemon yellow.  The trumpet has a darker yellow rim.Narcissus 'Lemon Glow'
Narcissus 'Marieke' is an example of the Division 1 Trumpet class.  'Marieke' is a large, pure yellow flower with a wide ruffled trumpet.Narcissus 'Marieke'
Narcissus 'Mount Hood' is a white daffodil in the Trumpet division.  The flaring trumpet opens creamy yellow and matures to pure white.Narcissus 'Mount Hood'
Narcissus 'Pistachio' is an example of the Division 1 Trumpet class.  The petals are pale yellow, and the white trumpet has a contrasting frilled yellow edge with a hint of green.Narcissus 'Pistachio'

Division 2:  Large-Cupped Daffodils

Large-Cupped Daffodils--One flower to a stem, corona (cup) more than one third but less than equal to the length of the perianth.segments (petals).

Examples:  Avalon, Fragrant Breeze, Delibes, Flower Record, Fortissimo, Ice Follies, Perfect Lady, 'Pink Charm,' Professor Einstein, Salome, Sound

Narcissus 'Avalon' is an example of the Division 2 Large-Cupped class, featuring a white cup with contrasting soft yellow petals.Narcissus 'Avalon'
Narcissus 'Delibes' is an example of the Division 2 Large-Cupped class. Bright yellow petals with contrasting orange cup with darker rim stands out in the garden.Narcissus 'Delibes'
Narcissus 'Ice Follies' is an example of the Division 2 Large-Cupped class.  An old favorite, this early bloomer features white petals and a wide yellow cup that matures to white.Narcissus 'Ice Follies'
Narcissus 'Pink Charm' is in the Division II, Large-Cupped Class.  Pure white petals set off the wide pink band of the cup.Narcissus 'Pink Charm'
Narcissus 'Salome' is an example of the Division 2 Large-Cupped class.  White petals display a large peachy-pink cup with a yellow edge.Narcissus 'Salome'
Narcissus 'Sound' is an example of the Division 2 Large-Cupped class. 'Sound' features white petals with a frilly yellow cup.Narcissus 'Sound'

Division 3:  Small-Cupped Daffodils

Small-Cupped Daffodils-- One flower to a stem, corona (cup) not more than one third the height of the perianth segments (petals).

Examples: Altruist, Barrett Browning, Goose Green, Jamestown, Princess Zaide, Royal Princess, Segovia, Sinopel

'Altruist' is an example of the Division 3 Small-Cupped class.  It features a soft orange perianth and red-orange cup.Narcissus 'Altruist'
Narcissus 'Barrett Browning' is an example of the Division 3 Small-Cupped class.Narcissus 'Barrett Browning'
Narcissus 'Goose Green' is an example of the Division 3 Small-Cupped class.  White petals and small yellow cup with a frilly orange-red rim.Narcissus 'Goose Green'
Narcissus 'Jamestown' is an example of the Division 3 Small-Cupped class.  A glistening white perianth sets off the lemon yellow cup.Narcissus 'Jamestown'

Division 4:  Double Daffodils

Double Daffodils-- Daffodils have a clustered cup, petals or both. There can be one or more flowers per stem. 

Examples:  Cheerfulness, Delnashaugh, Feu de Joie, Ice King, Replete, Rip van Winkle, Tahiti, Wave, White Lion, Yellow Cheerfulness

Narcissus 'Cheerfulness' is an example of Division 4 Double.  White outer petals surround a center cluster of white with yellow flecks.  A smaller flower, but multiple flowers per stem.Narcissus 'Cheerfulness'
Narcissus 'Delnashaugh' is an example of the Division 4 Double class.  A gorgeous confection of layered pink and white.Narcissus 'Delnashaugh'
Narcissus 'Feu de Joie' is an example of the Division 4 Double. Long white outer petals embrace a center of orange and gold. Free-spirited, romantic, gorgeous.Narcissus 'Feu de Joie'
Narcissus 'Replete' is and example of Division 4 Double class. A delicious confection of a double daffodil with whorls of white and peachy-pink.Narcissus 'Replete'
Narcissus 'Tahiti' is an example of the Division 4 Double class.Narcissus 'Tahiti'
Narcissus 'Wave' is an example of the Division 4 Double class.  A white perianth surrounds a cup of frothy petticoat layers of yellow and white .Narcissus 'Wave'

Division 5:  Triandrus Daffodils

Triandrus Daffodils-- Usually more than one flower to a stem, head drooping, perianth segments often reflexed and of silky texture.  There are usually two or more blooms per stem.

Examples:  Hawera, Ice Wings, Lemon Drops, Liberty Bells, Petrel, Stint, Thalia

Narcissus 'Hawera' is an example of the Division 5 Triandrus class.  Miniature pale yellow bells with multiple blooms per stem.Narcissus 'Hawera'
Narcissus 'Ice Wings' in an example of the Division 5 Triandrus class.Narcissus 'Ice Wings'
Narcissus 'Liberty Bells' is an example of the Division 5 Triandrus class.Narcissus 'Liberty Bells'
Narcissus 'Stint' is an example of the Division 5 Triandrus class.Narcissus 'Stint'
Narcissus 'Thalia' is an example of the Division 5 Triandrus class.  Pristine white swept-back petals and pure white cup. Elegant and charming.Narcissus 'Thalia'

Division 6:  Cyclamineus Daffodils

Cyclamineus Daffodils-- One flower to a stem, perianth significantly reflexed and corona straight and narrow. flower at an acute angle to the stem, with a very short pedicel (neck).

Examples:  February Gold, Jack Snipe, Jetfire, Peeping Tom, Rapture, Snipe, Wisley

Narcissus 'February Gold' is an example of the Division 6 Cyclamineus class.Narcissus 'February Gold'
Narcissus 'Jetfire' is an example of the Division 6 Cyclamineus class.Narcissus 'Jetfire'
Narcissus 'Rapture' is an example of the Division 6 Cyclamineus class.Narcissus 'Rapture'
Narcissus 'Wisley' is an example of the Division 6 Cyclamineus class.Narcissus 'Wisley'

Division 7:  Jonquilla Daffodils

Jonquilla Daffodils-- Usually several flower heads to a stem, flowers usually fragrant, stem is round in cross-section and foliage is often rush like.

Examples:  Baby Moon, Bell Song, Kedron, New Baby, Pipit, Quail, Prosecco, Stratosphere, Sweetness, Sweet Smiles

Narcissus 'Bell Song' is an example of the Division 7 Jonquilla class.Narcissus 'Bell Song'
Narcissus 'Kedron' is an example of the Division 7 Jonquilla class.Narcissus 'Kedron'
Narcissus 'Pipit' is an example of the Division 7 Jonquilla class.Narcissus 'Pipit'
Narcissus 'Stratosphere' is an example of the Division 7 Jonquilla class.Narcissus 'Stratosphere'

Division 8:  Tazetta Daffodils

Tazetta Daffodils-- Usually three to twenty flowers to a stout stem, sweet scented and very short cupped. Perianth segments rounded and often somewhat crinkled.

Examples:  Avalanche, Canaliculatus, Cragford, Falconet, Geranium, Minnow, Silver Chimes

Narcissus 'Avalanche' is an example of the Division 8 Tazetta class.Narcissus 'Avalanche'
Narcissus 'Cragford' is an example of the Division 8 Tazetta class.Narcissus 'Cragford'
Narcissus 'Falconet' is an example of the Division 8 Tazetta class.Narcissus 'Falconet'
Narcissus 'Minnow' is an example of the Division 8 Tazetta class.Narcissus 'Minnow'

Division 9:  Poeticus Daffodils

Poeticus Daffodils-- Usually one flower to a stem. White petals sometimes stained with the corona color at the base, small flat cup edged with red. Fragrant.

Examples:  Actaea, Angel Eyes, Pheasant's Eye

Narcissus 'Actaea' is an example of the Division 9 Poeticus class.Narcissus 'Actaea'

Division 10:  Bulbocodium Daffodils

Bulbocodium Hybrids-- Small flowers resemble a “hoop petticoat” form.

Examples:  Golden Bells, Cornish Cream

Narcissus bulbocodium is an example of the Division 10 Bulbocodium class.Narcissus bulbocodium

Division 11a:  Split-Cupped Collar Daffodils

 Split-Cupped Collar Daffodils-- Split-corona daffodils with the corona segments opposite the perianth segments; the corona segments usually in two whorls of three.

Examples:  Apricot Whirl, Blazing Starlet, Cassata, Mondragon, Shrike, Sovereign, Tricollet

Narcissus 'Apricot Whirl' is an example of the Division 11A Split-Cupped Collar class.Narcissus 'Apricot Whirl'
Narcissus 'Cassata' is an example of the Division 11A Split-Cupped Collar class.Narcissus 'Cassata'
Narcissus 'Shrike' is an example of the Division 11A Split-Cupped Collar class.Narcissus 'Shrike'
Narcissus 'Tricollet' is an example of the Division 11A Split-Cupped Collar class.Narcissus 'Tricollet'

Division 11b:  Split-Cupped Papillon Daffodils

Split-Cupped Papillon Daffodils:  Split-corona daffodils with the corona segments alternate to the perianth segments; the corona segments usually in a single whorl of six.

Examples:  Lemon Beauty, Papillon Blanc, Sorbet

Narcissus 'Lemon Beauty' is an example of the Division 11B Split-Cupped Papillon class.Narcissus 'Lemon Beauty'
Narcissus 'Papillon Blanc' is an example of the Division 11B Split-Cupped Papillon class.Narcissus 'Papillon Blanc'

Division 12:  Miscellaneous Daffodils

Miscellaneous Daffodils-- Division 12 consists of daffodils not falling into any of the previous categories. Many are inter-division hybrids.

Examples: Bittern,  Jumblie, Tête-á-Tête

Narcissus 'Tete-a-Tete' is an example of the Division 12 Miscellaneous class.Narcissus 'Tete-a-Tete'

Division 13:  Species, Wild Variants and Wild Hybrids

Species, Wild Variants and Wild Hybrids--Division 13 consists of the wild, natural daffodils.

Examples:   N. cantabricus, N. cyclamineus, N. jonquilla, N. jonquilla 'Simplex,' N. x medioluteus, N. moschatus, N. x odorus, N. papyraceus, N. poeticus var. recurvus

Narcissus jonquilla 'Simplex' is a tiny historical daffodil with bright yellow scented flowers.  There are multiple flowers per stem.  Charming!

Narcissus jonquilla 'Simplex'

Narcissus moschatus, is a lovely charmer also called Silver Bells or Swan’s Neck.  The dainty creamy trumpet nods towards the ground on a curved stem and the petals are almost parallel to it.  Goes beautifully with small bulbs like grape hyacinths or scillas.

Narcissus moschatus is an example of the Division 13 Species, Wild Variants and Wild Hybrids Class.Narcissus moschatus

Narcissus x odorus 'Linnaeus,' known as the campernelle, is single with a scalloped cup and twisty petals, also very fragrant and a great naturalizer

Narcissus x odorus 'Linnaeus' is an example of the Division 13 Species, Wild Variants and Wild Hybrids Class.Narcissus x odorus 'Linnaeus'

Narcissus x odorus 'Plenus,' or 'Flore-pleno' is also called Queen Anne's double daffodil or the double campernelle, fragrant

Narcissus x odorus 'Plenus' is an example of the Division 13 Species, Wild Variants and Wild Hybrids Class.Narcissus x odorus 'Plenus'

Narcissus poeticus var. recurvus, is the old pheasant's eye daffodil, fragrant, with recurved petals and red-rimmed cup, late blooming

Narcissus poeticus var. recurvus is an example of the Division 13 Species, Wild Variants and Wild Hybrids Class.Narcissus poeticus var. recurvus

For more information about daffodils, visit the American Daffodil Society at www.daffodilusa.org .


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